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December 2012 Volume 2 Issue 4 

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS                              

  ISSN 2249 – 6467

 

 

  Original Research Article   

                                                                                                                                            Open Access

 

    Safety Evaluation of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Picralima nitida Stapf

   (Apocynaceae)

     1Ilodigwe EE, 1Okoye GO, 1Mbagwu IS, 1Agbata CA, *1Ajaghaku DL

     International Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2012, 2(4):6-17.

     1Department  of  Pharmacology  and  Toxicology,  Faculty of  Pharmaceutical  Sciences, 

      NnamdiAzikiwe University , Agulu Campus, Anambra state, Nigeria

   ABSTRACT:  

The safety of the ethanol leaf extract of P. nitida, a popular Nigerian traditional antidiabetic remedy was investigated. For the acute toxicity

 study, 1000 5000 mg/kg of the ethanol leaf extract were administered to albino mice and obvious toxic symptoms and mortality 

24 h postadministration of the extract were determined. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract was determined. In the subchronic 

study, 750-3000 mg/kg of the extract were administered daily for 90 days. The food and water consumption, body weight changes, as well 

as heamatological and biochemical parameters were determined periodically. The   phytochemical constituents of the extract were also 

investigated. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins and tannins.The estimated LD50 was upto 5000 mg/kg. 

There was no reduction in body weight and non- significant (p > 0.05) alteration in Hb concentration, PCV and RBC count. However, 

there were significant (p < 0.05) elevation of WBC count, ALT, AST and ALP at the 61st and 91st days of the study. Hepatic 

photomicrograph reveals liver cell degeneration and rupture of the hepatocytes at high doses. At lower dose (750 mg/kg) no significant 

(p > 0.05) change was recorded for all the tested parameters. This study suggests that the leaf extract of P. nitidais  safe at low doses 

but may be toxic when used chronically at higher doses.

Key words: P. nitida,  toxicity, biochemical and heamatological parameters

 

 

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